Typescript vs Javascript: which one is better?

Typescript vs Javascript: which one is better?
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Written by Nilima PaulNovember 30, 2021
12 min read
JavaScript
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Techiio-author
Nilima Paul

Technology Security Analyst

Today we will know Typescript vs Javascript how they stack up against each other.

About Javascript

JavaScript (JS) is the most popular programming language in the world. It is considered a high-level language that helps to create interactive and dynamic web pages. Together with HTML and CSS, JavaScript is also one of the core technologies for web applications and is highly characterized by its dynamic typing and just-in-time (JIT) compiler.

Plus, it is a multi-paradigm language due to its ability to support functional programming, imperative programming styles, and event-driven programming. JavaScript followed a client-side implementation (when the script runs on the user's browser). However, it also has engines that allow server-side implementations (scripts run on the web server, and the response is customized according to each user's request).

JavaScript started standing out as a server-side technology mainly due to the development and popularity of Node.js. Nonetheless, it is not easy to handle large and complex applications in JavaScript because, as the code grows, it becomes harder to maintain and reuse. Thus, despite the benefits, JavaScript on the server (backend) also made things messier and more complicated to handle. To overcome this struggle, Microsoft introduced TypeScript.

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Key takeaways from JavaScript

  • Most popular programming language;
  • Full-fledged, cross-platform, multi-paradigm, dynamic language;
  • Client-side and server-side implementation;
  • JIT compilation;
  • Compatible with all browsers;
  • Developed for small scripts.

About Typescript

As mentioned, JavaScript can manage hundreds of code lines, but it was not developed to handle very extensive and complex applications. Therefore, TypeScript (TS) is a superset of JavaScript, fulfilling the same purpose as JavaScript. Yet, it was created to handle and develop larger applications by being strongly typed and by including compile-time error controls.

More precisely, TypeScript is a programming language that supports static and dynamic typing, and further provides inheritance features, classes, visibility scopes, namespaces, interfaces, unions, and other modern features. Additionally, it also enables comments, variables, functions, statements, modules, and expressions.

TS can be used for client-side and server-side applications. Moreover, JavaScript libraries are also compatible with TypeScript.

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Key takeaways from TypeScript

  • A superset of JavaScript, thus compatible with JS libraries;
  • Strongly typed, compiled language, can follow OOP principles;
  • Easier to debug;
  • Provides static typing;
  • Offers full-fledged IDE support;
  • Can convert its code to JavaScript code.

Difference between TypeScript and JavaScript

Definition

The main distinction worth focusing on is that while JavaScript is a prearranging language that makes intelligent and dynamic website pages, TypeScript is a specifically superset of JavaScript.

In total, TypeScript is JavaScript with extra elements created to defeat JavaScript difficulties, particularly with regards to static composing and taking care of code intricacy.

Compilation

On the one hand, there is no need to compile when using JavaScript. Since it is an interpreted language, errors can only be found during run-time. In other words, it first needs to run to be tested and considered valid or not. Consequently, it may take a lot of time to find bugs and errors in the code.

On the other hand, TypeScript has a compile-time error feature that, as the name indicates, compiles the code and checks for compilation errors that may be found in the syntax. This feature can save developers valuable time before running the script. Further, it also avoids some errors from going to production, so it helps the business as well, not only the developers.

Typing

Javascript has dynamic composing (i.e., a variable would now be able to be a number and later on a string). This makes it difficult to tell how to deal with what is inside a particular variable. Additionally, it doesn't give static composing. Static composing implies that the designer announces the sort of information that a variable can have. For instance, if 'x' was proclaimed to point just to numbers, the compiler gives a mistake once you to place a string in there. Conversely to JS, TypeScript is specifically and empowers both static and dynamic composing (it's discretionary).

Static composing is presumably the principle benefit of utilizing TypeScript. It permits the engineer to check type precision during accumulate time. For instance, JavaScript gives language natives like string and number, yet it doesn't make sure that the designer has reliably relegated these. TypeScript does.

Further, utilizing TS static composing in present day advancement conditions (e.g., VS Code) can offer extra data and right ideas about the designer's code, adding to better documentation (which different engineers likewise appreciate). Code route and refactoring are likewise accessible highlights that can help the engineer monitor where explicit capacities and affirmations are, etc. Furthermore, as referenced, by and large, TS commits it simpler to get errors and bugs.

Is JavaScript an object-oriented programming (OOP) language?

ECMAScript is a standard for scripting languages; it provides rules, guidelines, and other details describing what a scripting language should entail. JavaScript is a scripting language that conforms with ECMAScript specifications. Those specifications can change, and new ones can be introduced; hence, there are several ECMAScript versions. One of the versions that introduced the most significant modifications was ECMAScript 6 (also known as ES6 or ECMAScript 2015). This version introduced modules, classes, arrow functions, enhanced object properties, and other exciting features.

Upon JavaScript's release of ES6, the concept of classes was indeed introduced. However, this is a syntax feature for JavaScript's prototypal inheritance. JS is prototype-based, not class-based. Hence, JavaScript is not considered a pure object-oriented programming language, despite the ability to follow some object-oriented programming principles.

Is TypeScript an object-oriented programming (OOP) language?

The answer to this question is not that straightforward. On the one hand, TypeScript has classes and other features that allow the developer to follow OOP principles and techniques.

On the other hand, it is not an opinionated language, meaning that it does not "force" the developer to follow object-oriented principles, like certain languages do (e.g., Java and C#). Therefore, TS is usually not considered a pure object-oriented programming language.

In fact, instead of object-oriented code, in TypeScript, the developer can also opt for imperative or functional code. Consequently, as mentioned before, both JavaScript and TypeScript are multi-paradigm languages. TypeScript vs JavaScript: code examples.

TypeScript vs JavaScript: which one to learn?

To learn TypeScript, developers must first learn JavaScript. The more a developer knows about JavaScript, the easier it will be to learn TypeScript since both languages share the same syntax as well as the same run-time behavior (except the fact that TS has a compile-time checker).

As the most popular language, JavaScript has a lot of available resources and a massive community. In most cases, TypeScript developers can also benefit from those resources since the way tasks are executed will be the same.

Conclusion

JavaScript is an incredible language; otherwise, it would not have been the most popular one for so many years. However, that does not mean it is perfect (does the perfect programming language even exist?). When it comes to handling larger projects, things can get messy and confusing in JavaScript. Therefore, Microsoft developed TypeScript.

TypeScript is pretty much JavaScript plus the ability to scale. Their main difference is that TypeScript is strongly typed, and JavaScript is not. Moreover, unlike JS, TS was designed to handle larger projects, and the reason for that lies in these three main aspects:

  1. It is easier to refactor code;
  2. Identifies bugs and mistakes by compile-time checking;
  3. Explicit type.

For smaller projects, the effort of using TypeScript does not usually pay off; thus, JavaScript is probably better. For larger projects, yes, TypeScript is better and more efficient.

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